Footnotes for Lifelines Magazine Articles

Below you’ll find the footnotes for articles that are included in Lifelines, a quarterly magazine produced by the Toronto Vegetarian Association for its’ members.

The footnotes are categorized by issue and article.

Spring 2021

Do Plants Feel Pain by Ryan Cannon
Losinger W.C., 1998. “Feed-conversion ratio of finisher pigs in the USA.”  Prev. Vet. Med.
International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). 2017. Washington, D.C.: International
Association for the Study of Pain; [accessed 2020 Oct 7].
Bryson B. 2019. “The body: a guide for occupants.” Canada: Doubleday Canada. Chapter 19,
Nerves and pain; p.304-317.
Sneddon L.U., Braithwaite V.A. and Gentle M.J. 2003. “Do fishes have nociceptors?” Evidence for the evolution of a vertebrate sensory system. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 270:1115-1121.
de Waal F. 2016. “Are we smart enough to know how smart animals are?” New York (NY): W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
American Psychological Association (APA). 2020. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological
Association; [accessed 2020 Oct 11].
Reimert, I., Bolhuis, J.E., Kemp, B. et al. 2015. “Emotions on the loose: emotional contagion and
the role of oxytocin in pigs.” Anim. Cogn. 18:517–532.
Muller R., Schrader L. 2005. “Behavioural consistency during social separation and personality in dairy cows.” Behaviour. 142(9-10):1289-1306.
King, B.J. 2013. “When Animals Mourn.” Scientific American. 309(1):62-67.

Will Eating Better Help Me Fight COVID-19 if I Get Infected?  By Chetan Phadke


Vegetarians in History by Taunya Ahier

Fall 2020

10 Ways to Support Veggie Businesses in the Pandemic By Samantha Davis

1. “Vegetarianism and veganism in Canada – Statistics and Facts,” Statistica. 23 October

Budget-Friendly Plant-Based Eating By Mark Monachino

1. “COVID Consumer Spending Tracker”, RBC Economics. Last updated 1 June 2020.
Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
2. Maxwell, Mason. “The merits of taxing meat”, iPolitics. 13 Feb 2018. Retrieved 30 June
2020 from
3. “McDonald’s Canada Nutrition Facts”, McDonald’s. Last updated 20 June 2020.
Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
4. “McDonald’s Menu Prices in Canada”, CostFinderCanada. Last updated Feb 2020.
Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
5. “Lentils, mature seeds, cooked, boiled, without salt”, U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Agricultural Research Service, FoodData Central. Energy last updated 1 Apr 2007.
Protein last updated 1 Dec 1986. Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
6. “Lentils, raw”, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, FoodData
Central. Energy last updated 1 Apr 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
7. “Sitara Masoor Dal Red Lentils”, Walmart. Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
8. “Cost Comparison Research”, The Vegan Society. Last updated Apr 2020. Retrieved 30
June 2020 from
9. “Historical Exchange Rates”, Oanda. Spot GBP/CAD FX rate 1.6814 (as of 30 June
2020). Retrieved 30 June 2020 from
10. “Canada’s Food Guide”, Government of Canada. Last updated 13 Jan 2020. Retrieved
30 June 2020 from

Lifelines March 2018

Footnotes for Weird Veg Science, “Is eating fish really the best way to get your omega-3 fatty acids?” by Marco Pagliarulo.

1] Alexander DD, Miller PE, Van Elswyk ME, Kuratko CN, Bylsma LC. 2017. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease risk. Mayo Clin Proc 92:15-29.

[2] Mazereeuw G, Lanctôt KL, Chau SA, Swardfager W, Herrmann N. 2012. Effects of ω-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging 33:1482.e17-29.
[3] Cooper RE, Tye C, Kuntsi J, Vassos E, Asherson P. 2015. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation and cognition: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Psychopharmacol 29:753-763.
[4] Wani AL, Bhat SA, Ara A. 2015. Omega-3 fatty acids and the treatment of depression: a review of scientific evidence. Integr Med Res 4:132-141.
[5] McNamara RK. 2016. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of depression: Current status and future directions. J Nutr Int Metab 5:96e106.
[6] Davis BC, Kris-Etherton PM. 2003. Achieving optimal essential fatty acid status in vegetarians: current knowledge and practical implications. Am J Clin Nutr 78(suppl):640S–646S.
[7] Turyk ME, Bhavsar SP, Bowerman W, Boysen E, Clark M, Diamond M, Mergler D, Pantazopoulos P, Schantz S, Carpenter DO. 2012. Risks and benefits of consumption of Great Lakes fish.  Environ Health Perspect 120:11-18.
[8] Doughman SD, Krupanidhi S, Sanjeevi CB. 2007.  Omega-3 fatty acids for nutrition and medicine: considering microalgae oil as a vegetarian source of EPA and DHA. Curr Diabetes Rev 3:198-203.
[9] Hites RA, Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager SJ. 2004. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science 303:226-229.
[10] Rawn DF, Breakell K, Verigin V, Nicolidakis H, Sit D, Feeley M. 2008. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the Canadian market: polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine insecticides. J Food Sci 74:T14-19.
[11] Sioen I, Bilau M, Verdonck F, Verbeke W, Willems JL, De Henauw S, Van Camp J. 2008. Probabilistic intake assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and omega-3 fatty acids through fish consumption. Mol Nutr Food Res 52:250-257.
[12] Gribble MO, Karimi R, Feingold BJ, Nyland JF, O’Hara TM, Gladyshev MI, Chen CY. 2016. Mercury, selenium and fish oils in marine food webs and implications for human health. J Mar Biol Assoc UK 96:43-59.
[13] Tur JA, Bibiloni MM, Sureda A, Pons A. 2012. Dietary sources of omega 3 fatty acids: public health risks and benefits. Br J Nutr 107 Suppl 2:S23-S52.

Footnote for Vegetarians in History, “Racing legend Peter Brock” by Taunya Ahier.


Lifelines, December 2017

Footnotes for “Got protein?” by Mark Monachino.

(Websites accessed on 30 Sept 2017)
[1], [2] Messina V. “Plant Protein: A Vegan Nutrition Primer.” The Vegan RD.
[3] Greger MH. “Which Type of Protein Is Better for Our Kidneys?” 30
Oct 2015.
[4] Greger MH. “Protein Intake & IGF-1 Production.” 1 Oct 2012.
[5] Davis G and Jacobson H. Proteinaholic, New York: HarperOne, 2015, p. 3.
[6] Fuhrman J and DM Ferreri. “Fueling the Vegetarian (Vegan) Athlete.“ Current Sports
Medicine Reports, 9(4): 233-241, 2010, p. 237.
[7] Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, and Fraser GE. “Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian
and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics. 113(12): 1610-1619, 2013, fig. 1.
[8] Greger MH. “Do Vegetarians Get Enough Protein?” 6 Jun 2014.
[9] Greger MH. “98% of American Diets Potassium-Deficient.” 19 Dec

Footnotes for Weird Veg Science, “We’ve got a big butt problem: Our cigarette butts are
poisoning wildlife” by Marco Pagliarulo.

[1] Bonanomi G, Incerti G, Cesarano G, Gaglione SA, Lanzotti V. 2015. Cigarette butt
decomposition and associated chemical changes. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0117393.
[2] Patel V, Thomson GW, Wilson N. 2013. Cigarette butt littering in city streets: A new
methodology for studying and results. Tob Control 22:59–62.
[3] Novotny TE, Slaughter E. 2014. Tobacco product waste: An environmental approach to
reduce tobacco consumption. Curr Envir Health Rpt 1:208–216.
[4] Lee W, Lee CC. 2015. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts – An underdeveloped issue.
Ecotox Environ Safety 113:362–368.
[5] Parker TT, Rayburn J. 2017. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt
leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos. Toxicol Reports 4:77–82.

[6] Booth DJ, Gribben P, Parkinson K. 2015. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.
Marine Poll Bull 95:362–364.
[7] Dieng H, Saifur RGM, Ahmad AH, Rawi CSM, Boots M, Satho T, Zuharah WF, Fadzly N,
Althbyani A, Miake F, Jaal Z, Abubakar S. 2011. Discarded cigarette butts attract females and kill
the progeny of Aedes albopictus. J Am Mos Cont Assoc 27:263-271.
[8] Roder Green AL, Putschew A, Nehls T. 2014. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine
in urban waters. J Hydrol 519:3466-3474.
[9] Igic B, Cassey P, Samas P, Grim T, Hauber ME. 2009. Cigarette butts form a perceptually
cryptic component of song thrush (Turdus philomelos) nests. Notornis, 56:134-138.
[10] Suárez-Rodríguez M, López-Rull I, Macías Garcia C. 2013. Incorporation of cigarette butts
into nests reduces nest ectoparasite load in urban birds: New ingredients for an old recipe? Biol
Lett 9:20120931.
[11] Suárez-Rodríguez M, Macías Garcia C. 2014. There is no such a thing as a free cigarette:
Lining nests with discarded butts brings short-term benefits, but causes toxic damage. J Evol
Biol 27:2719–2726.
[12] Suárez-Rodríguez M, Montero-Montoya RD, Macías Garcia C. 2017. Anthropogenic nest
materials may increase breeding costs for urban birds. Front Ecol Evol 5:4.