Below you’ll find the footnotes for articles that are included in Lifelines, a quarterly publication produced by the Toronto Vegetarian Association every March, June, September and December.
The footnotes are categorized by issue and article.

Lifelines, December 2017

Footnotes for “Got protein?” by Mark Monachino.

(Websites accessed on 30 Sept 2017)
[1], [2] Messina V. “Plant Protein: A Vegan Nutrition Primer.” The Vegan RD. protein
[3] Greger MH. “Which Type of Protein Is Better for Our Kidneys?” 30
Oct 2015. kidneys
[4] Greger MH. “Protein Intake & IGF-1 Production.” 1 Oct 2012. igf1
[5] Davis G and Jacobson H. Proteinaholic, New York: HarperOne, 2015, p. 3.
[6] Fuhrman J and DM Ferreri. “Fueling the Vegetarian (Vegan) Athlete.“ Current Sports
Medicine Reports, 9(4): 233-241, 2010, p. 237.
[7] Rizzo NS, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Sabate J, and Fraser GE. “Nutrient Profiles of Vegetarian
and Non Vegetarian Dietary Patterns.” Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and
Dietetics. 113(12): 1610-1619, 2013, fig. 1.
[8] Greger MH. “Do Vegetarians Get Enough Protein?” 6 Jun 2014. vegetarians
[9] Greger MH. “98% of American Diets Potassium-Deficient.” 19 Dec

Footnotes for Weird Veg Science, “We’ve got a big butt problem: Our cigarette butts are
poisoning wildlife” by Marco Pagliarulo.

[1] Bonanomi G, Incerti G, Cesarano G, Gaglione SA, Lanzotti V. 2015. Cigarette butt
decomposition and associated chemical changes. PLoS ONE 10(1):e0117393.
[2] Patel V, Thomson GW, Wilson N. 2013. Cigarette butt littering in city streets: A new
methodology for studying and results. Tob Control 22:59–62.
[3] Novotny TE, Slaughter E. 2014. Tobacco product waste: An environmental approach to
reduce tobacco consumption. Curr Envir Health Rpt 1:208–216.
[4] Lee W, Lee CC. 2015. Developmental toxicity of cigarette butts – An underdeveloped issue.
Ecotox Environ Safety 113:362–368.
[5] Parker TT, Rayburn J. 2017. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt
leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos. Toxicol Reports 4:77–82.

[6] Booth DJ, Gribben P, Parkinson K. 2015. Impact of cigarette butt leachate on tidepool snails.
Marine Poll Bull 95:362–364.
[7] Dieng H, Saifur RGM, Ahmad AH, Rawi CSM, Boots M, Satho T, Zuharah WF, Fadzly N,
Althbyani A, Miake F, Jaal Z, Abubakar S. 2011. Discarded cigarette butts attract females and kill
the progeny of Aedes albopictus. J Am Mos Cont Assoc 27:263-271.
[8] Roder Green AL, Putschew A, Nehls T. 2014. Littered cigarette butts as a source of nicotine
in urban waters. J Hydrol 519:3466-3474.
[9] Igic B, Cassey P, Samas P, Grim T, Hauber ME. 2009. Cigarette butts form a perceptually
cryptic component of song thrush (Turdus philomelos) nests. Notornis, 56:134-138.
[10] Suárez-Rodríguez M, López-Rull I, Macías Garcia C. 2013. Incorporation of cigarette butts
into nests reduces nest ectoparasite load in urban birds: New ingredients for an old recipe? Biol
Lett 9:20120931.
[11] Suárez-Rodríguez M, Macías Garcia C. 2014. There is no such a thing as a free cigarette:
Lining nests with discarded butts brings short-term benefits, but causes toxic damage. J Evol
Biol 27:2719–2726.
[12] Suárez-Rodríguez M, Montero-Montoya RD, Macías Garcia C. 2017. Anthropogenic nest
materials may increase breeding costs for urban birds. Front Ecol Evol 5:4.